Since President John F. Kennedy's Executive Order 10925 in 1961, affirmative action has undergone a long and contentious history. The directive obliged government contractors to take "affirmative action" to eliminate minorities' prejudice. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed employment discrimination. People who were mistreated unfairly might sue their employers under Title VII. President Lyndon B. Johnson expanded the program to have included women in the protected group in 1967. Employers were obliged to provide reports on their recruiting and hiring activities, as well as explain how they planned to address inequality in their workplace. Employers at some higher education institutions began to keep meticulous records on the demographic features of their candidate pools.
Affirmative action frequently elicits strong emotional reactions, either in support of or opposed to the idea. People get into heated disputes without first clarifying what they intend by affirmative action. Affirmative action, according to some social science experts, is any effort performed by institutions and organizations to achieve equal opportunities and outcomes for everyone. Affirmative action measures must be implemented in federal organizations and institutions by law. Although not mandated by law, private organizations frequently use affirmative action initiatives to improve diversification in respective institutions.
Affirmative action is the method through which diversity is increased in the workforce and in higher education. The aims of workplace affirmative action initiatives might differ. Some prioritize the recruitment of talented minorities and women, while others develop additional measures to assure the maintenance of their diverse workforce. Other programs may concentrate on the advancement of minorities and women in the workplace. Affirmative action programs are often geared to attract and hire individuals inside organizations, whereas managing diversity programs carry out their functions within organizations after employees have been employed.
Affirmative action initiatives are used in higher education to improve racial and cultural balance on university campuses. Many colleges and universities that prioritize diversity want to admit enough people to create a sufficient number of minority students. These rules seek not merely to expand the number of diverse students, but also to accept those who can handle the rigours of a college education. Additionally, some social experts claim that affirmative action laws are required to ensure fairness in higher education institutions since affirmative action programs promote results. It is not enough to improve opportunities for underrepresented groups; mechanisms must be put in place to guarantee that opportunity leads to outcomes.
As the US becomes increasingly diverse, the need to efficiently manage diversity will increase. Individuals of European heritage who may be classified as Caucasians are expected to account for fewer than half of the population by 2050, putting persons of colour in the majority. Given the importance that these institutions play in assisting individuals in leading successful and meaningful lives, attention to diversity concerns is especially important in the workplace and in university education. Multiculturally qualified counselling practitioners who have received diversity training may be asked to deliver training to groups and higher education institutions.
Counselling psychologists' training may assist businesses and institutions in communicating successfully by fostering open discourse and assisting in the dismantling of prejudices and preconceptions. Because of the changing demographics of the US population, more research on all areas of diversity is required to guarantee that people have a chance to reside in an inclusive, fair, and democratic community.